On Monday, 30 heads of state will meet at the 1949 NATO Summit in Brussels, Belgium. Security Alliance headquarters.
At US President Joe Biden’s first NATO summit, he wants to reassure his allies that “America is back” after a tumultuous four years after former US President Donald Trump declared NATO “obsolete”. He called it a “deadlock” and initially refused to explicitly affirm NATO’s principle of mutual protection.
The new “Strategic Concept 2030” outlines how the alliance is expected to address the various challenges it faces.
NATO’s current strategic concept dates back to 2010, but “did not take the prospects of Russian aggression so seriously; it barely mentioned China,” said James Ames Goldgayer, a professor of international relations at American University and former director of the National Security Council on Ukraine and Eurasia. on staff.
The need to reflect the changing security landscape called on French President Emanuel Macron in his 2019 Criticizing that the bloc is “dead” is no longer purposeful.
NATO chief Jens Stoltenberg will offer to focus on issues such as cyber warfare, China, Russia, strategic rivalries with authoritarian states, and the effects of climate change on international security, experts say.
Here are five things you need to know.
One of the most pressing topics on the agenda is how NATO will ensure Afghanistan’s stability in the region once it has completed its operations.
US troops նրանց Their NATO allies are preparing to withdraw their 9,600-strong mission by the end of the Biden conflict on September 11, after nearly two decades of conflict in the region.
Critics, including former US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, warn that there is a risk that the Taliban may regain control.
According to the UN Security Council, the al-Qaeda network that provided the basis for the US invasion of Afghanistan after the 9/11 attacks still has 400-600 members fighting the Taliban.
Al-Qaeda operatives told CNN in an April interview that “the war against the United States will continue on all other fronts if it does not happen.”
NATO plans to provide ongoing financial assistance to the Afghan security forces. But the question remains whether the Allies will pledge millions – perhaps billions of dollars – to provide Afghanistan with equipment and serious training programs.
U.S. military officials have discussed establishing bases in neighboring countries so they can return to Afghanistan if threatened by al-Qaeda or ISIS.
The United States would like to operate in Pakistan, but given Islamabad’s often strained relations with Washington, this is unlikely to be the case under Biden.
He added that the Pentagon would also support the return of bases to Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, which requires blessings from China and Russia.
“It will be much more difficult than it was 10 years ago,” he said as relations between the two “powers” in the United States soured.
Lead leaders will also discuss strengthening NATO’s collective defense by focusing on a “more aggressive Russia,” said Christine Berzina, a senior fellow at the German Marshall Fund.
Last year, Russia deployed 150,000 troops to its border with Ukraine in what Stoltenberg called “the largest concentration of Russian troops” on the Ukrainian peninsula of Moscow since the annexation of Moscow in 2014, prompting NATO to warn Russia that ” aggression “will have the result.
The controversy between Western governments and Russia escalated last August over an almost fatal poisoning of Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny, which many have blamed on Moscow, a claim he denies.
The summit is likely to ask the United States if it is ready to move more troops, tanks to Europe, more equipment in Europe, more air defense on the continent, said Amy Sheen, a senior researcher based in Brussels. – European Friends of the Tank նախկին Former NATO staff member.
“Countries like Romania and Bulgaria would definitely like to see stronger American defense in the region.”
In a recent speech, Stoltenberg noted that NATO does not consider Beijing an adversary, but that China’s rise has a direct impact on the security of the transatlantic alliance.
“China is not perceived as a threat in itself, but as something that can become an adversary,” Berzina said.
NATO allies have condemned China’s human rights abuses, including crackdown on dissidents in Hong Kong, and the internal persecution of more than one million members of the predominantly Muslim Uighur population in northwest Xinjiang.
Other NATO concerns include China’s threats to invade Taiwan, Beijing’s militarized growth, and its approach to the Indo-Pacific region, which US Deputy Secretary of Defense Dr. Kathleen Hicks described as more “coercive and aggressive.”
Berzina says that under Trump, “there was a certain desire in Europe to maintain equality between the two great powers – not to be published in the American conflict, especially when relations with the United States were just as poor.”
Although Berzina says China still has more “legs” in Europe than the United States would like, Shea expects more layouts in Beijing.
“Europe woke up to China’s challenges,” he said.
The EU punished Chinese officials in March for the first time in 30 years over the Uyghur issue.
France, Germany, and the United Kingdom recently sent warships to the Indo-Pacific region, indicating that Europe is “involved in a free, open Indo-Pacific region,” said Rafael Los, the Council of Europe’s pan-European data project coordinator.
“NATO can work closely with partners such as Australia, India, Japan, South Korea. “It also needs to think about how it can help protect democracy in Taiwan.”
NATO members will decide to increase the overall budget of the organization for more joint opportunities, such as training, exercises – strengthening cyber defense.
Stoltenberg called on allies to “invest more and better” and suggested that they contribute $ 20 billion to the total budget over the next 10 years.
At present, the total basket accounts for 0.3% of total Allied defense spending, or about $ 2.5 billion.
French officials have spoken out against the request for a general funding cut.
French Defense Minister Florence Parlin told Politico this month. “All this money is money that will not be used to increase national budgets, to European defense efforts that benefit NATO. And what to do? No one can tell you. “
Berzina predicts that the costs will be worrying for some NATO members. “There have always been leaders and backward people in spending. “There will be compromises, but I think it will be difficult, especially in the COVID-19 economic landscape.”
And then, the EU summit
A day later, on Tuesday, Biden և EU officials will hold a summit in Brussels.
Experts say tariffs on aircraft և metals և trade is a key issue, as is how to apply the new global minimum corporate tax rate under a historic agreement reached on June 5 by the Group of Seven finance ministers.
Other issues will include data transmission, epidemic recovery, climate policy, and carbon pricing schemes.
While Europe wants to welcome Biden to the region, the previous administration has shown how quickly Washington’s priorities can change.
European leaders are still unsure how Biden’s “foreign policy for the middle class” differs from Trump’s “America First” agenda, Goldgayer said.
“This will be an important issue for Europe.”